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Roguelike is a subgenre of role-playing video game characterised via a dungeon crawl through procedurally generated stages, flip-primarily based gameplay, tile-based totally graphics, and permanent dying of the player individual. maximum roguelikes are based totally on a excessive fantasy narrative, reflecting their affect from tabletop role playing games such as dungeons & dragons.

though the roguelikes below apple manor and sword of fargoal predate it, the 1980 recreation rogue, that’s an ascii based sport that runs in terminal or terminal emulator, is taken into consideration the forerunner and the namesake of the style, with derivative video games mirroring rogue’s man or woman- or sprite-primarily based photographs. those video games had been popularized among college students and computer programmers of the 1980s and Nineteen Nineties, main to a large quantity of versions but adhering to those not unusual gameplay factors, frequently titled the “berlin interpretation”. a number of the better-recognized variations consist of hack, nethack, historic domains of mystery, moria, angband, tales of maj’eyal, and dungeon crawl stone soup. the japanese collection of thriller dungeon games with the aid of chunsoft, inspired via rogue, additionally fall in the idea of roguelike video games.

Extra lately, with more effective home computers and gaming systems, several new games consist of elements of the roguelike style whilst incorporating other gameplay genres, thematic factors and graphical styles as nicely. such video games normally maintain a roguelike belief of procedural era and permanent demise of the player-character but do no longer consist of all the excessive-price factors of the berlin interpretation. these games are often classified as “roguelike”, but are also known as “roguelike-like”, “rogue-lite”, or “procedural loss of life labyrinths” to differentiate them from the greater traditional roguelikes.


The foundation of the time period “roguelike” came from usenet newsgroups around 1993, as this become the essential channel the gamers of roguelike games of that length have been the use of to talk about those games, in addition to what the builders used to announce new releases or even distribute the game’s source code in a few cases. with several individual agencies for each sport, it was recommended that with growing popularity of rogue, hack, moria, and angband, all which shared not unusual elements, that the organizations be consolidated underneath an umbrella term to facilitate cross-sport discussion.debate amongst customers of those corporations ensued to try and discover an encapsulating term that describes the common elements, starting with*,however after 3 weeks of dialogue, games.roguelike.*, based on rogue being the oldest of these styles of games, was picked as “the least of all to be had evils”. by the point it changed into cautioned that a set was created to discuss the development of these sort of video games in 1998, the “roguelike” term become already set up in the network.[6] this usage parallels that of “doom clone”, a time period used in 1990s that later evolved into more frequent “first-person shooter”.


Gameplay and design

General gameplay

Deriving from the ideas of tabletop role-gambling video games such as dungeons & dragons, almost all roguelikes deliver the participant manage of a man or woman, which they will personalize by means of selecting a class, race, and gender, and adjusting attributes factors and capabilities. at the begin of the game, the character is placed at the pinnacle-maximum level of a dungeon, with primary gadget inclusive of a simple weapon, armor, torches, and meals. following alongside the position-playing idea of a dungeon crawl, the player moves the character via the dungeon, gathering treasure which could encompass new weapons, armors, magical devices, potions, scrolls, food, and in-game cash, even as having to combat monsters that roam the dungeon.[7] maximum combat is performed truly with the aid of attempting to move the person into the same area as the monster. the game then calculates the damage that the person and monster deal.[8] different types of attacks, including firing an arrow or performing an offensive magic spell, can frequently be completed as well.

Defeating monsters earns the person experience points, and after earning enough factors, the individual will gain an experience degree, enhancing their hit factors, magic capability, and different attributes. monsters may additionally drop treasure to be looted. the character dies if they lose all their hit points. as most roguelikes function the concept of permadeath, this represents the stop of the game, and the player will want to restart the game with a newly made man or woman.[9] roguelikes are nearly constantly flip-primarily based, with the sport handiest reacting when the player makes an motion with the man or woman.[9] this lets in gamers to evaluate a hard state of affairs, which include being cornered with the aid of numerous monsters, at their personal pace and decide the first-class method.[7]

The player normally has to discover the dungeon to reveal its contents, just like a fog of war. many roguelikes consist of visibility factors, inclusive of a torch to offer illumination to see monsters in nearby squares, or line of sight to limit which monsters are visible from the participant’s function. dungeons tend to be related by way of stairs; decrease dungeon tiers typically are greater hard than better ones, so that an underdeveloped character can have difficulty progressing too speedy. dungeon tiers and the population of monsters and treasure within them are generated randomly using procedural technology, so no game is the same on subsequent playthroughs. most roguelikes have an remaining purpose of either claiming an item placed on the private stage of the dungeon, or defeating a particular monster that lives on that level.[9] traditional roguelikes check the participant’s overall performance at the end of the sport thru a score based totally on the amount of treasure, money, and revel in earned, and how rapid the participant finished the game, in the event that they controlled to accomplish that. the score is displayed in a ranked scorecard to evaluate the participant’s performance on successive runs.


Key features

The style of roguelike broadly encompasses the gameplay that changed into popularized through the text-based sport rogue (1980), which bore out many variations because of its fulfillment;[7][11] as of 2015, numerous hundred games claiming to be roguelikes were to be had via the steam sport catalog,[9] and the consumer-run wiki roguebasin tracks loads of roguelikes and their improvement.[12] because of the growth of several variations at the roguelike theme, the gameplay factors characterizing the roguelike style had been explicitly defined at the international roguelike improvement convention 2008 held in berlin, germany; these elements encompass what’s referred to as the “berlin interpretation”.[13][14][15] the berlin interpretation set out a fixed of excessive-value and low-price elements, basing those lists on five canon roguelike video games: adom, angband, linley’s dungeon crawl, nethack, and rogue. the translation is designed to decide “how roguelike a recreation is”, noting that missing a element does now not take away a recreation from being a roguelike, nor does owning the functions make a sport roguelike.john harris of game set watch exemplified this by using the use of those standards to numerically score some reputedly roguelike video games; linley’s dungeon move slowly and nethack scored maximum, incomes fifty seven.five points of 60 available based totally on the interpretation, while toejam & earl and diablo, video games usually compared to roguelikes, earned most effective about half of the points.

Early roguelikes

Early roguelikes have been advanced to be played on text-based totally person interfaces, normally unix-based totally computer mainframes and terminals used at faculties and universities earlier than transitioning to personal computer systems. games used a combination of ascii or ansi characters to symbolize elements of the dungeon degrees, creatures, and gadgets on the extent. those video games generally blanketed one or textual content strains providing the participant’s present day fame at the lowest of the display, and textual content-based totally menu screens to control inventory, statistics, and different information.

The participant’s man or woman changed into nearly continually represented through the @ across textual content-primarily based roguelikes, which were chosen with the aid of the developers of rogue to face for “in which you are at”.[8] different examples could encompass $ for economic treasure and d for a dragon. later games could take benefit of coloration-primarily based text photos to increase the version of creature sorts, together with a red d for a purple dragon that would shoot hearth, whilst a green d should indicate a green dragon that might shoot acid. players could use the keyboard, using one key press to enter a command. with modern-day pc structures, users advanced trade approach of showing the sport, which include graphical tilesets and isometric-primarily based graphical the front ends, in addition to interfaces that took benefit of keyboard and mouse ui controls.

As computer systems provided greater advanced user interfaces, together with home windows and factor-and-click menus, many conventional roguelikes had been modified to encompass support for having multiple home windows. this was useful to no longer only display the character-based dungeon, however info at the man or woman’s inventory, the monster they were in war with, and other repute messages, in separate windows. getting access to multiple home windows additionally allowed having menus to complete extra complicated instructions.


Roguelike-likes and procedural death labyrinths

With computers and video game consoles able to more superior pix and gameplay, severa video games have emerged which can be loosely based on the conventional roguelike layout but diverge in one or more capabilities. a lot of those video games use the ideas of procedurally generated maps and permadeath, at the same time as shifting far from tile-primarily based movement and flip-based gameplay, often using some other gameplay genre along with motion games or platformers.[24][25] different titles deriving from roguelike games are based totally at the statement that the conventional roguelikes are tough with a steep mastering curve, and a participant may also in no way complete these games over severa play classes, making those titles hard to promote to a broader target audience. these new games could consist of elements to reduce the problem as to attract in a larger audience.[26] many video games with some of the berlin interpretation factors name themselves “roguelike”, however bear little resemblance to the unique rogue, causing confusion and dilution of the term.

As such, the time period “roguelike-like” or “rogue-lite” has been used to distinguish those games that possess a few, but no longer all, of the berlin interpretation features from those who precisely meet the berlin roguelike definition.[28] the word “procedural demise labyrinth” has additionally been applied to such video games, as they hold the notion of permadeath and random stage generation but lack the opposite high-fee factors typically associated with roguelike video games

Roguelike-likes are usually a lot shorter video games meant to be winnable inside a single gaming consultation, in comparison to conventional roguelikes which are designed for more than one classes of gameplay. related to their short period, many roguelike-likes characteristic a metagame, whereby attaining positive desires will unencumbered functions including the potential to pick a new person on the start of the sport or the addition of recent items and monsters in the procedural generation of the game’s stages.[31] numerous roguelike-likes feature day by day demanding situations, in which a preset random seed is used to generate the game’s levels in a deterministic style in order that each participant could have the equal encounters; players strive to finish the game via those degrees or otherwise get the best score through on line leaderboards.[32] roguelike-likes may additionally allow the participant to go into the random seed without delay as a good way to rechallenge the same set of degrees or proportion a tough set of stages with other players.

Us gamer similarly identified games they do not forget side cases of being roguelikes or roguelike-likes, as they are stimulated with the aid of rogue, and “that stray a piece similarly from the style however nonetheless manage to scratch the same itch as a top notch roguelike”. these encompass video games which includes the diablo series, toejam & earl, and dwarf fort.


The roguelike style has advanced with the enlargement of each classical roguelikes and present day roguelike-like titles, a committed fan community has come about to now not best talk video games inside it but to craft their personal memories of close to-loss of life adventures or a laugh tales in roguelikes.[91] inside this network, there is robust interest in growing roguelikes. the 7 day roguelike project (7drl) become born out of a usenet newsgroup in 2005 for roguelike developers, informally difficult them to create the middle of a novel roguelike inside 7 days to be submitted for judging and play through the public.[7] the competition has persisted yearly every yr, due to the fact that developing from five–6 entries in 2005 to over 130 in 2014.within the spirit of the 2008 global roguelike conference, the “roguelike celebration” became held for the first time in september 2016 in san francisco in which numerous beyond and gift roguelike developers accumulated to speak about the history and destiny path of the genre.[91], it has given that been prepared again in 2017 and 2018.


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